SQL interview questions and answers has several stored procedures that you can write once and store to run them whenever required repeatedly. Keys present a specific set of attributes that define the relations between a given row and table. Thus, it allows users to build a relation between two tables. Keys provide a way to combine values from one table to another and get more desired results.


Since we have put Department table on left, it will include all department, those also for which dept_id is not available in Employee table. Hi pankaj, please check this query hope it will satisfy ur criteria. 3) Print all employees who has higher salary than average salary of their department. Here we can’t use having clause as it is not a group by expression.

A column alias could be used in the ORDER BY clause. Kuldeep is the founder and lead author of ArtOfTesting. He is skilled in test automation, performance testing, big data, and CI-CD.

In this article, we are going to discuss all those questions which are frequently asked during SQL interviews ( SQL interview questions and answers ). We will start from the basics then move to the advanced level and also discuss some essential queries often used in SQL management. so let’s discuss SQL Interview Questions and Answers. Cracking the SQL Interview — A good collection of SQL interview questions and answers on Github that’s much more useful than most of the listicles out there. The purpose of an index in a database table is to improve the speed of looking through that table’s data.

A UNIQUE constraint is used to avoid duplicate values but accepted null values in a column. If this constraint is imposed on a column then that column will not allow duplicate values into it. In simple words, we can say that Default constraints enable the SQL Server (SQL interview questions and answers) to write default value to a column when the user doesn’t specify a value. It maintains the data integrity i.e. accurate data or original data of the table.

Each object in the database may have different schema. Data is stored logically in tablespaces and physically in the data files.Oracle Interview questions with answersprovide you the simple and detailed answers with relevant examples. Learning Oracle interview questions with answers would facilitate the knowledge required for the interview. DML is known as Data Manipulation Language which is used to manipulate and access data in the existing objects. DML statements include select, insert, delete and update.

sql interview questions and answers

SQL interview questions and answers clause is used to filter some rows from the whole set of records with the help of different conditional statements. Collation provides a set of rules that determine how character data can be sorted and compared in a database. It also provides the case and accent sensitivity properties. Collation is used to compare A and other language characters with the help of ASCII value. There is no need to write the same logic several times because the function can be called whenever needed. It is the name of a central repository of data from multiple information sources for analytics and business intelligence activities.

Q35  How Can You Insert Null Values In A Column While Inserting The Data?

Known for its speed, reliability, and flexibility, My SQL interview questions and answers is mainly used for developing web applications. By the end of this course, you will know all the great secrets to answer the most common SQL interview questions and answers during any job interview. We will analyse each question and make sure you include in your answer just what is importantto present yourself as the best fit candidate. The outer join is used to retrieve data from multiple tables. There are three types of outer join left outer join, right outer join and full outer join.

The below syntax can be used to create a new table with 3 columns. From the Object Explorer window pane, go to the table where the column is present and choose Design. Connection strings help connect databases to another staging database or any external source of data. Go to the Database for which you require the Connection string.

When multiple values in the set have same ranking, then the RANK() function will assign non-consecutive ranks to the values resulting in gaps. When DENSE_RANK() is used consecutive ranks are assigned to values in the set. In case we need the department name too, we will need to join the Employee table with Department table using foreign key DepId. Write SQL query to fetch employee names having a salary greater than or equal to 5000 and less than or equal 10000.

Joins are used to combine rows from two or more tables, based on a related column between them. The above command will completely delete all the data present in the table along with the table itself. Submitted questions and answers are subject to review and editing, and may or may not be selected for posting, at the sole discretion of Toptal, LLC.

PL SQL is considered to be a procedural language that has interactive SQL, as well as the procedural programming language which constructs such as iteration and conditional branching. 12 is considered to be the maximum no of triggers which can be applied to a single table. The duplicate rows in a table can be deleted with the use of ROWID. Alias is referred to be a temporary name which is given to a column or table whereas Rename is known as a permanent name that is given to a column or table. Alias is said to be an alternate table name or column name and Rename is considered to be nothing but the replacement of name.

What Are The Types Of Indexes In T

All table’s rows, indexes, and privileges will also be removed when we used this command. It is a collection of data that is organized to be easily accessed, managed and updated. It’s indexed to make it easier to find related information. In SQL, a trigger is a database object that is associated with a table. It will be activated when a defined action is executed for the table.

The reason this question gets asked is to verify whether you can do mathematical operations between two columns and group the results by criteria set in a third column. The reason this question gets asked at interviews is to test your knowledge of conditional statements as well as manipulation of the results gotten from the conditions. This is a very important area for practice as you will more than likely be using conditional statements on a day-to-day basis in your data job. The question here is which hour of the day averages the highest order volume. You also need to return the distribution of all hours sorted from highest volume to the lowest. So, the question here is, what is the average duration for all UPDATE calls.

SQL clause is defined to limit the result set by providing condition to the query. This usually filters some rows from the whole set of records. Stored Procedure is a function consists of many SQL statement to access the database system. Several SQL statements are consolidated into a stored procedure and execute them whenever and wherever required. A primary key is a combination of fields which uniquely specify a row. This is a special kind of unique key, and it has implicit NOT NULL constraint.

A denormalized database will have a better-read performance, but a poor write performance for updates. A table is a collection of rows and columns to collect data. For example, you can have a table with students’ information like the ID, Name, Lastname, email, etc.

Though now AUTO_INCREMENT is sufficient in the databases like mysql. You can modify system tables as well to modify increment value. Atomicity is a property of a transaction, which makes sure that the statements being executed in a transaction are completely done or rolled back. If some transactions fail then the changes made by the operation then the system makes sure that the changes are not getting flushed to the disk.

In log shipping, the transnational log file from one server is automatically updated into the backup database on the other server. If one server fails, the other server will have the same DB that can be used as the Disaster Recovery plan. The key feature of log shipping is that it will automatically backup transaction logs throughout the day and automatically restore them on the standby server at a defined interval.

As such, we’ve defined it with a simple foreign key in the orders table pointing to a given customer_id, and we can use JOIN clauses in our SELECT queries fairly easily. In this very first blog post – various aspect of the interview questions and answers are discussed. Some people like the subject for their helpful hints and thought provoking subject, and others dislike these posts because they feel it is nothing more than cheating. I’d like to discuss the pros and cons of a Question and Answer format here.

Integrity constraints are maintained and the changes made to the database are valid as per the defined rules. The difference between TRUNCATE, DELETE, and DROP is one of the most common interview questions. Here are some of the common differences between them. Temporary tables are created using the same syntax as a CREATE TABLE except the table name starts with a ‘#’ sign. When the table consists of a single ‘#’ sign, it is defined as a local temporary table and its scope is limited to the session it is created in. When @@FETCH_STATUS system function returns -2 the FETCH was unsuccessful because the row was deleted.

SQL interview questions and answers

Usually, if I know what the end output table is supposed to look like, I can work backwards from there on what functions need to be applied before. Jay has worked in data science in Silicon Valley for the past five years before starting Interview Query, a data science interview prep newsletter. Write SQL SELECT query that returns the FirstName and LastName from Employee_Details table.